How NATIONALISTS view HUMAN NATURE, the STATE, SOCIETY and the ECONOMY

How NATIONALISTS view HUMAN NATURE, the STATE, SOCIETY and the ECONOMY

The quad of human nature, state, society and economics represent a foundation on which to develop and compare political ideologies. Some ‘isms’ may be stronger and more prominent features of some ideologies yet less significant for others

For nationalism, concepts of human nature are very important whilst approaches and theories around economics are more vague and changeable

HUMAN NATURE

Civic nationalism (liberalism) sees citizens and individuals in a rational light where everyone actively participates equally in society. This is a rational, inclusive and progressive view of human nature which promotes mutual respect for rights and national identities. Sovereign states should work to respect and further promote this positive view of human nature (Rousseau)

Culturalism sees a sense of ‘nation’ based more around shared cultures than civic loyalties or duties. It takes an emotional, irrational and at times mystical view of human nature centred around the notion of the volskgeist – the cultural spirt of the nation. It’s an exclusive view of human nature – you may not always be welcome (Herder)

Expansionism and other forms of chauvinistic nationalism also take an irrational, emotional and frequently racist view of human nature and assumes some ethnic groups and nationalities to be superior to others – particularly those groups they perceive as a threat. This may lead to integral nationalism in which the individual is completely absorbed into the nation (Maurras). What if ALL forms of nationalism take an irrational and and emotional view of human nature due to the way it perceives the individual ALWAYS in terms of the nation / country?

THE STATE

Liberal and anti/post-colonial nationalists – recognise the nation-state as the only form of legitimate government (Rousseau)

Liberal internationalists – see the world in terms of independent nation states offering peace and international order / cooperation (Mazzini, Garvey)

Conservative nationalists see the state as a culturally and socially unique structure within their own political framework which helps binds individuals and groups together (Maurras)

Expansionist nationalism and other forms of chauvinistic nationalism reject nation-states and nationhood for all – it’s only for the superior and more racially ‘advanced’ cultures

SOCIETY

Civic nationalism sees citizens and individuals in a rational light where everyone actively participates equally in society – an inclusive vision of society, a progressive view of society (Rousseau)

Culturalism sees society based more around shared cultures than civic loyalties or duties, it may also choose to define the nation and society by ethnicity and race (Herder, Maurras)

Chauvinist / racialist views of society see a clear ‘them and us’ distinction which promotes an exclusive/inclusive view of society. This is a regressive view of society as it tends to look back rather than forwards. It may represent an imagined and mythical idea of society (Herder, Maurras)

THE ECONOMY

No direct or specific link between nationalism and economics.

Nationalism appears to be able to thrive in various different economic systems from the developed capitalist right through to totalitarian, authoritarian one-party communist states.

Strongest link between nationalism and economics – where the nationalism is based on socialist ideas.

Nation-state – could be defined as control of economics.

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